7: Adding User Accounts

7.1: Password Authentication

Meteor already comes with a basic authentication and account management system out of the box, so you only need to add the accounts-password to enable username and password authentication:

meteor add accounts-password

There are many more authentication methods supported. You can read more about the accounts system here.

We also recommend you to install bcrypt node module, otherwise you are going to see a warning saying that you are using pure-Javascript implementation of it.

meteor npm install --save bcrypt

You should always use meteor npm instead of only npm so you always use the npm version pinned by Meteor, this helps you to avoid problems due to different versions of npm installing different modules.

7.2: Create User Account

Now you can create a default user for our app, we are going to use meteorite as username, we just create a new user on server startup if we didn’t find it in the database.

server/main.js

import { Meteor } from 'meteor/meteor';
import { Accounts } from 'meteor/accounts-base';
import { TasksCollection } from '/imports/api/TasksCollection';

..

const SEED_USERNAME = 'meteorite';
const SEED_PASSWORD = 'password';

Meteor.startup(() => {
  if (!Accounts.findUserByUsername(SEED_USERNAME)) {
    Accounts.createUser({
      username: SEED_USERNAME,
      password: SEED_PASSWORD,
    });
  }
  ..
});

You should not see anything different in your app UI yet.

7.3: Login Form

You need to provide a way for the users to input the credentials and authenticate, for that we need a form.

We can implement it using useState hook. Create a new file called LoginForm.jsx and add a form to it. You should use Meteor.loginWithPassword(username, password); to authenticate your user with the provided inputs.

imports/ui/LoginForm.jsx

import { Meteor } from 'meteor/meteor';
import React, { useState } from 'react';

export const LoginForm = () => {
  const [username, setUsername] = useState('');
  const [password, setPassword] = useState('');

  const submit = e => {
    e.preventDefault();

    Meteor.loginWithPassword(username, password);
  };

  return (
    <form onSubmit={submit} className="login-form">
      <label htmlFor="username">Username</label>

      <input
        type="text"
        placeholder="Username"
        name="username"
        required
        onChange={e => setUsername(e.target.value)}
      />

      <label htmlFor="password">Password</label>

      <input
        type="password"
        placeholder="Password"
        name="password"
        required
        onChange={e => setPassword(e.target.value)}
      />

      <button type="submit">Log In</button>
    </form>
  );
};

Ok, now you have a form, let’s use it.

7.4: Require Authentication

Our app should only allow an authenticated user to access its task management features.

We can accomplish that returning the LoginForm component when we don’t have an authenticated user, otherwise we return the form, filter, and list component.

You should first wrap the 3 components (form, filter and list) in a <Fragment>, Fragment is a special component in React that you can use to group components together without affecting your final DOM, it means without affecting your UI as it is not going to introduce other elements in the HTML.

Read more about Fragments here

So you can get your authenticated user or null from Meteor.user(), you should wrap it in a useTracker hook for it to be reactive. Then you can return the Fragment with Tasks and everything else or LoginForm based on the user being present or not in the session.

imports/ui/App.jsx

import React, { useState, Fragment } from 'react';
import { useTracker } from 'meteor/react-meteor-data';
import { TasksCollection } from '/imports/api/TasksCollection';
import { Task } from './Task';
import { TaskForm } from './TaskForm';
import { LoginForm } from './LoginForm';

..
export const App = () => {
  const user = useTracker(() => Meteor.user());
  
  ..
  return (
      ..
      <div className="main">
        {user ? (
          <Fragment>
            <TaskForm />

            <div className="filter">
              <button onClick={() => setHideCompleted(!hideCompleted)}>
                {hideCompleted ? 'Show All' : 'Hide Completed'}
              </button>
            </div>

            <ul className="tasks">
              {tasks.map(task => (
                <Task
                  key={task._id}
                  task={task}
                  onCheckboxClick={toggleChecked}
                  onDeleteClick={deleteTask}
                />
              ))}
            </ul>
          </Fragment>
        ) : (
          <LoginForm />
        )}
      </div>
..

7.5: Login Form style

Ok, let’s style the login form now:

Wrap your pairs of label and input in divs so it will easier to control it on CSS.

client/main.css

.login-form {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  height: 100%;

  justify-content: center;
  align-items: center;
}

.login-form > div {
  margin: 8px;
}

.login-form > div > label {
  font-weight: bold;
}

.login-form > div  > input {
  flex-grow: 1;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  padding: 10px 6px;
  background: transparent;
  border: 1px solid #aaa;
  width: 100%;
  font-size: 1em;
  margin-right: 16px;
  margin-top: 4px;
}

.login-form > div > input:focus {
  outline: 0;
}

.login-form > div > button {
  background-color: #62807e;
}

Now your login form should be centralized and beautiful.

7.6: Server startup

Every task should have an owner from now on. So go to your database, as you learn before, and remove all the tasks from there:

db.tasks.remove({});

Change your server/main.js to add the seed tasks using your meteorite user as owner.

Make sure you restart the server after this change so Meteor.startup block will run again. This is probably going to happen automatically any way as you are going to make changes in the server side code.

server/main.js

import { Meteor } from 'meteor/meteor';
import { Accounts } from 'meteor/accounts-base';
import { TasksCollection } from '/imports/api/TasksCollection';

const insertTask = (taskText, user) =>
  TasksCollection.insert({
    text: taskText,
    userId: user._id,
    createdAt: new Date(),
  });

const SEED_USERNAME = 'meteorite';
const SEED_PASSWORD = 'password';

Meteor.startup(() => {
  if (!Accounts.findUserByUsername(SEED_USERNAME)) {
    Accounts.createUser({
      username: SEED_USERNAME,
      password: SEED_PASSWORD,
    });
  }

  const user = Accounts.findUserByUsername(SEED_USERNAME);

  if (TasksCollection.find().count() === 0) {
    [
      'First Task',
      'Second Task',
      'Third Task',
      'Fourth Task',
      'Fifth Task',
      'Sixth Task',
      'Seventh Task',
    ].forEach(taskText => insertTask(taskText, user));
  }
});

See that we are using a new field called userId with our user _id field, we are also setting createdAt field.

7.7: Task owner

Now you can filter the tasks in the UI by the authenticated user. Use the user _id to add the field userId to your Mongo selector when getting the tasks from Mini Mongo.

imports/ui/App.jsx

..
    const hideCompletedFilter = { isChecked: { $ne: true } };
  
    const userFilter = user ? { userId: user._id } : {};
  
    const pendingOnlyFilter = { ...hideCompletedFilter, ...userFilter };
  
    const tasks = useTracker(() => {
      if (!user) {
        return [];
      }
  
      return TasksCollection.find(
        hideCompleted ? pendingOnlyFilter : userFilter,
        {
          sort: { createdAt: -1 },
        }
      ).fetch();
    });
  
    const pendingTasksCount = useTracker(() => {
      if (!user) {
        return 0;
      }
  
      return TasksCollection.find(pendingOnlyFilter).count();
    });
..

    <TaskForm user={user} />
..

Also update the insert call to include the field userId in the TaskForm. You should pass the user from the App component to the TaskForm.

imports/ui/TaskForm.jsx

..
export const TaskForm = ({ user }) => {
  const [text, setText] = useState('');

  const handleSubmit = e => {
    e.preventDefault();

    if (!text) return;

    TasksCollection.insert({
      text: text.trim(),
      createdAt: new Date(),
      userId: user._id
    });

    setText('');
  };
..

7.8: Log out

We also can better organize our tasks by showing the username of the owner below our app bar. You can include a new div right after our Fragment start tag.

On this you can add an onClick handler to logout the user as well. It is very straightforward, just call Meteor.logout() on it.

imports/ui/App.jsx

..
  const logout = () => Meteor.logout();

  return (
..
    <Fragment>
      <div className="user" onClick={logout}>
        {user.username} 🚪
      </div>
..

Remember to style your user name as well.

client/main.css

.user {
  display: flex;

  align-self: flex-end;

  margin: 8px 16px 0;
  font-weight: bold;
}

Phew! You have done quite a lot in this step. Authenticated the user, set the user in the tasks and provided a way for the user to log out.

Your app should look like this:

Review: you can check how your code should be in the end of this step here

In the next step we are going to start using Methods to only change the data after checking some conditions.

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